The 4Ps model The 4Ps model was created by Rhodes describing creativity as containing a product, process, person, and press. Rhodes’s notion of creativity comes from his research on creativity, in which he collected forty definitions of creativity and sixteen of imagination, but soon discovered that these definitions overlapped and intertwined with each other. Having categorized the definitions, he came up with a 4Ps model of creativity in 4 parts: person, process, press and products.
(1) Person - about personality, intellect, temperament, physique, traits, habits, attitudes, self-concept, value systems, defense mechanisms, and behavior. He argues that people with higher intelligence show a higher talent for creativity, and examines whether creativity is somehow a potential. He then studies some research about the topic and concludes that a creative person is sensitive to problems, has mental flexibility, thinks divergently, is able to redefine existing objects and concepts, and has a complex temperament.
(2) Process - applies to motivation, perception, learning, thinking, and communicating.
Rhodes uses research by Graham Wallas and Alex Osborn as his basis. This process infers that the creative thinking process has 4 stages: preparation, incubation, inspiration, and verification; and that the creative process can be taught.
(3) Press - refers to the relationship between human beings and their environment. Rhode finds that everyone perceives the environment surrounding him as unique and this ultimately impacts the way in which ideas are formed. The ability to produce creatively is probably as a result of what a persons' upbringing has imposed on him.
(4) Product - is what is created when an idea transforms into tangible form. Rhodes suggests that if a product were examined and traced back to the moment of inspiration, it might be possible to trace the thoughts and events leading to the idea.
Rhodes determined that the creative process can take only one direction, namely, from product to person, to process and then to press.
Rhodes, M. (1961). An analysis of creativity. The Phi Delta Kappan, 42(7), 305-310.
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